Delhi Building Bye Laws | UBBL Delhi

Delhi Building Bye laws, Delhi Building Bye laws 2021, Delhi Building Bye laws 2016, Delhi Building Bye laws 2020, Building Bye laws in Delhi

Going through a 100 page PDF file of Delhi Building Bye Laws can be overwhelming for someone who is considering to build a new home in Delhi. There are many rules and regulations to consider when it comes to building your new home. You have to comply with all the government guidelines. In this article, we will cover everything related to Delhi Building Bye Laws in depth. Building Bye governs how planned urban development is done in cities. The UBBL Delhi were largely updated in 2016 after a gap of 33 years. There have been some few changes since 2016 and we have covered them all below.

The Building Bye Laws include:

1. Ground Coverage
2. FAR
3. Setbacks
4. Height
5. General Building Requirements

A. Balcony
B. Canopy
C. Parapet Walls
D. Boundary Wall
E. Basement
F. Stilts
G. Lifts
H. Staircase
I. Lighting and Ventilation
J. Ventilation Shafts

Delhi Building Bye Laws

1. Ground Coverage in Delhi

The portion of the building within the outer surface of the structural wall/ column/ slab measured at ground level excluding the projection/ balcony/ canopy/ porch/ void/ shaft permitted free from FAR and cladding/curtain wall upto 150mm shall be considered as ground coverage. In common words, the area of ground you can cover on your plot is called ground coverage.

2. FAR in Delhi

For a common man FAR is the floor area ratio between the floor area and the plot area. How much you could build on your plot in terms of area considering your plot area and size. To make the FAR calculations easy for you, we have created a FAR Calculator for Delhi. Enter your plot details and get the results in a matter of seconds.

FAR : Te quotient obtained by dividing the total covered area (plinth area) on all floors multiplied by 100 by the area of the plot.

FAR = Total covered area of all floors x 100 / Plot area

For eg:  On a 251 sqm plot your FAR would be 300 hence what you can build will be a total of (251 x 300 )/100 = 753 sqm as total on all floors. You have a choice to divide it to 4 floors as permitted in Delhi or as you like.


The following shall not be included in covered area for FAR and Ground Coverage calculations:-

      1. Machine room for lift on top floor as required for the lift machine installation.
      2. Rockery, lift/ lift well, escalator/travelator well and well structures, plant nursery, water pool, swimming pool at any level (if uncovered), platform around a tree, tank, fountain, bench, chabutra with open top and / or unenclosed sides by walls, open ramps, compound wall, gate, slide swing door, fire staircase, fire towers, refuse area, fire control room,  overhead water tank on top of building/open shafts, cooling towers as per fire norms. Fire tender movement shall be unhindered.
      3. Mumty over staircase on top floor maximum 3m height.
      4. Culvert on Municipal drains.
      5. Watch and ward cabins of total area not more than 4.5 sqm and 6sqm with W.C each at entry and exit only, within the property line. Porta cabins for guard room are permitted within the plot line in residential plots of size minimum 200 sqm and above.
      6. Entrance porch, canopies and balconies.
      7. All pergolas at any floor level not exceeding 20% of Ground Coverage.
      8. For Residential Plotted development: Balcony to be provided within the plot line to the max width of 1.5 m free from FAR. Wrap around continuous balconies will be allowed as long as their area does not exceed 40% of the total open area.
      9. Basement is not to be counted in FAR if used for parking, household storage and services.
      10. Passageway/ corridor constructed more than the prescribed /permissible limit should not be counted towards FAR calculations.
      11. One toilet on terrace having a maximum of 2.2 m height shall be permitted subject to condition that the area of toilet is maximum 4 sq. m and not to be counted in FAR and towards height of buildings.
      12. The total coverage and FAR permissible in any plot in a category, shall not be less than that permissible and available to the largest plot in the next lower category.
      13. FAR shall be allowed with maximum size of servant quarter as 25 sq.m and if larger in size would be counted as a full dwelling unit.
      14. Maximum ground coverage, FAR, number of dwelling units for different size of residential plots shall be as per the following table:


S. No. Area of the Plot Sq.m. Max Ground Coverage % FAR No. of DUs No. of DUs Restrained by Supreme Court
1. Below 32 90* 350 3 3
2. Above 32 to 50 90* 350 3 3
3. Above 50 to 100 90* 350 4 4
4. Above 100 to 250 75**   300* 4 4
5. Above 250 to 750 75 225 6 5
6. Above 750 to 1000 50 200 9 7
7. Above 1000 to 1500 50 200 9 7
8. Above 1500 to 2250 50 200 12 10
9. Above 2250 to 3000 50 200 15 10
10. Above 3000 to 3750 50 200 18 10
11. Above 3750 50 200 21 10
      1. The total coverage and FAR permissible in any plot in a category, shall not be less than that permissible and available to the largest plot in the next lower category.
      2. FAR shall be allowed with maximum size of servant quarter as 25 sq.m and if larger in size would be counted as a full dwelling unit.


The area in your plot on the front rear or sides depending on your plot size, that you leave for  light ,ventilation and services like connectivity to municipal drains etc is called your plot setback. It is defined as   

      1.  An area between the plot boundary and the setback line, size of which is defined as per the provisions of MPD. 
      2. Strip of land permanently left open for drainage purposes not to be used as an access way and is not a street or be included as a part of setbacks.

Set Back Line:  A line usually parallel to the plot boundaries or center line of a road and laid down in each case by the Authority or as per recommendations of Master/Zonal Plan, beyond which nothing can be constructed towards the plot boundaries, excepting with the permission of the Authority.

The minimum setbacks in Delhi shall be as given in the following table:

S.NO. Plot Size (Sq.m.) Front Rear Side(1) Side(2)
1. Below 100 0 0 0 0
2. Above 100 and upto 250 3 0 0 0
3. Above 250 and upto 500 3 3 3 0
4. Above 500 and upto 2000 6 3 3 3
5. Above 2000 and upto 10000 9 6 6 6
6. Above 10000 15 9 9 9

In case the permissible coverage is not achieved with the above mentioned setbacks in a plot, the setbacks of the preceding category may be allowed. Example On a 300 sq yard /251 sqm plot you could choose the setbacks of your preceding category i.e. only leave a front setback of 3 meters if your ground coverage is not being met while taking full FAR for that category.

In case of a corner plot the road width on which the plot abuts will be considered as the side where the setbacks will be. The higher road width will fetch the setback. In case the road width on both sides is the same the setback will come on the side which has a larger depth.


Measurement of Height of a building – The vertical distance in the case of flat roofs is measured from the highest surrounding road level/ ground level up to the top of structural slab. In case if the building does not abut on a street, the height shall be measured from the highest level of the ground immediately adjacent to the building.

Following structures shall not be included in the height of building in Delhi:

      • Roof tanks and their supports not exceeding 1.8 m.
      • Ventilating apparatus, air conditioning equipment and lift machine room(s) if required as per the specification of lift manufacturer and similar service equipment.
      • Stair covered with Mumty not exceeding 3.0 m in height.
      • Chimneys and parapet walls not exceeding 1.5 m in height.
      • Screen wall up to the height of 1.8 m.
      • Solar panel at any height or level (including ground level)//terrace/ rooftop.
      • Height of Car lifts/passenger lifts including the machine room accessible to rooftop/terrace.
      • Toilet on terrace.
      • Pergola upto the height of the Mumty, maximum 3m above the terrace of the top floor.


General Building Requirements in Delhi

  • Main Building: The plinth or any part of a building or outhouse shall be so located with respect to highest surrounding road level from site / ground level irrespective of location of the entry level so that adequate drainage of the site is assured. 
  • Interior Courtyards, Covered Parking Spaces and Garages: These shall be satisfactorily drained either by gravity or by mechanical means. 

Note: The thickness of outer walls will be maintained at least 230mm

General Building Requirements- Balcony in Delhi

Definition:- A horizontal cantilevered/non-cantilevered/projected slab including parapet and handrail balustrade, at any floor level including terrace to serve as a passage or sit out place with at least one side fully open, except being provided with railing or parapet wall for safety

      • Balcony within the plot line to the max width of 1.5 m free from FAR.
      • Wrap around continuous balconies will be allowed as long as their area does not exceed 40% of the total open area. 
      • Minimum double height open terrace shall be permitted measuring @ 10.0 sq.m maximum area with a maximum depth of 3.0m free from FAR.
      • End walls up to 0.9 m in terrace type construction constructed purely as an architectural feature (non Load Bearing) will be compoundable.


General Building Requirements- Canopy

In one storied residential buildings, only such canopy shall be permitted for each individual detached block. In more than one storied residential buildings, canopies shall be permitted over ground floor entrances with maximum height of 3 m. from ground level.

A) Front Setback

i) 2.4 m (maximum) deep in case the front setback is 3m deep

ii) 3 m (maximum) deep in case the front setback is 6 m or more.

B) Side setbacks

i) 2.4 m (maximum) deep in case the side setback is 3 m deep.

ii) 3 m (maximum) deep in case the side setback is 6 m. or more.

Note: Minimum 30% of the area of respective setback is to be maintained as open to sky.

General Building Requirements- Parapet Walls in Delhi

Parapet: A low wall or railing built along the edge of a roof or a floor; maximum 1.5m for  low-rise or maximum 1.8m for high-rise. 

      • Parapet walls and handrails provided on the edges of roof terrace, balcony etc
      • Minimum 1 m Maximum 1.5m
      • On terrace floor in the portion where DG Set, Water Tank and other services equipments are installed, lightweight screen shall be constructed to hide such equipment

General Building Requirements-  Boundary Wall in Delhi

      • Front Wall- Maximum 1.5m from highest adjacent road level at site/ ground level to be solid (stone/ brick/ masonry etc.) and above 1.5m, it should be perforated (stone jail/iron grills/vegetation) to maintain visual continuity. 
      • Side & Back Wall – Maximum 2.4 m from ground level to be solid (stone/brick/ masonry etc.)


General Building Requirements- Basement Rules in Delhi

Definition:- Basement or Cellar- The lower story of a building below or partly below ground level. 

      • Minimum clear height 2.4m from beam bottom (soffit) and Minimum width 2.4m.
      • Ventilation is a must .
      • Adequate arrangement shall be made such that surface drainage does not enter the basement.
      • walls and floors of the basement shall be  watertight
      • Access to the basement shall be either from the main or alternate staircase providing access to the building. In case a lift is provided in a building (including residential buildings) the same shall also serve the basement area.

Basements not to be counted in FAR if used for parking, household storage and services. Basement area shall not extend beyond the coverage on the ground floor as per permissible and sanctioned built up area, but may extend to the area below the internal courtyard and shaft.

Up to 40% of the total setback area can be sunk for light, ventilation and access to basement, provided fire tender movement is not hindered. Sunken courtyard as ‘light well’ within building envelope shall be permitted for light and ventilation for basement area. In order to make the basement we need to leave 2 m from the neighbours plot. (not mentioned in the bylaws – a separate notification was issued by the LG office )

One Toilet is permitted within the building envelope in stilts area and basement with subject to appropriate natural/ mechanical ventilation, drainage and sanitation, provided that the maximum size does not exceed 4 sq.m which shall not be counted towards F.A.R. One toilet on terrace having a maximum of 2.2 m height shall be permitted subject to condition that the area of toilet is maximum 4 sq. m and not to be counted in FAR and towards height of buildings. 

General Building Requirements- Stilt Parking Rule in Delhi

Stilt: Stilt or stilt floor means non habitable portion of a building above ground level consisting of structural columns supporting the superstructure with at least two sides open for the purpose of parking cars, scooters, cycles and landscaping

      • In case a building is to be constructed on an individual plot with stilt floor, a minimum 2.4m height at soffit level of beam and maximum 2.7m height at soffit level of slab for providing parking space is permitted calculated from the finished floor level.

Note: Stilt is mandatory for plot areas 100-1000 sqm. 

General Building Requirements- Lift Rules in Delhi

      • For buildings below 15m the provision of lift is on the discretion of the owners in order to facilitate movement of elderly people. 
      • All the floors including basement and roof top/terrace shall be accessible by the lifts. The lifts provided in the buildings shall not be considered as a means of escape in case of emergency. 
      • For all residential plots size measuring up to 500 sqm and height below 15 m,  opening of lift shall be allowed in the staircase landing, provided it does not obstruct movement in general and in emergency. 
      • The access to the basement shall be either from the main or alternate staircase providing access to the building. In case a lift is provided in a building (including residential buildings) the same shall also serve the basement area.


General Building Requirements- Staircase Rules in Delhi

      •  Mandatory to provide a ladder or any other form of open access to the overhead tank for inspection
      • Interior stairs shall be constructed of non-combustible material throughout
      • Interior stairs shall be constructed as a self-contained unit and shall be mechanically ventilated if completely enclosed in low rise residential buildings
      • A staircase shall not be arranged round a lift shaft. 
      • Hollow combustible construction shall not be permitted
      • minimum width of treads without nosing shall be 25 cm for an internal staircase for low rise residential buildings
      • The treads shall be constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent slipping.
      •  Winders shall be allowed in low rise residential buildings provided they are not at the head of a downward flight.
      • The maximum height of riser shall be 19 cm in the case of low rise residential buildings
      • The maximum number of risers per flight shall be limited to 15 per flight.
      • The maximum height of riser shall be 150mm in the case of low rise residential buildings
Components of Building  Min. Requirement for a dwelling unit above 50 sq.m area 
Staircases(low rise) Width           1.0* m
      • Handrails shall be provided with a minimum height of 1.0 m from the centre of the tread subject to condition that balusters/ railing do not reduce the width of staircase
      • minimum headroom in a passage under the landing of a staircase and under the staircase shall be 2.2 m
      • Lift shall not open in staircase landing. Adequate Lift Lobby shall be provided.  (except for low rise residential plotted development upto 500 sqm.) 
      • clear width excluding handrail and balustrade
      • Where staircase discharges through corridors and passageways, the height of corridors and passageways shall be not less than 2.4 m
      • All means of exit including staircases, lifts lobbies and corridors shall be naturally/mechanically ventilated. 
      •  The additional area of passageway/ corridor constructed over and above  the prescribed /permissible limit, should not be counted towards FAR but shall be counted in Ground Coverage


General Building Requirements- Lighting and Ventilation of Habitable Rooms 

Habitable Room: A room occupied or designed for occupancy by one or more persons for study, living, sleeping, eating and kitchen if it is used as living room but not including bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundries serving and storage pantries, corridors, cellars, attics and spaces that are not used frequently or during extended periods

      • All habitable rooms shall have for the admission of sun/natural light and air, one or more apertures, such as window, glazed door and fan lights, opening directly to the external air or into an open veranda not more than 2.40 m in width.
      • In case light and ventilation to habitable space area are through an internal courtyard, the minimum dimensions of such courtyard shall not be less than 3.0 m x 3.0 m for buildings below 15m in height unless mechanically ventilated.


Interiors Open space

      • The whole or part of one side of one or more rooms intended for human habitation and not abutting on either the front, rear or side open spaces shall abut on an interior open space whose minimum width in all directions shall be 3.0 m in case of buildings not more than 15 m in height unless mechanically ventilated.
      • Sunken courtyard as ‘light well’ within the building  envelop shall be permitted for light and ventilation for the basement area.
      • Skylight in interior open space(courtyard)  may be permitted subject to it may not act as a coverage space on the ground floor and not violate the maximum/ minimum ground coverage


General Building Requirements- Ventilation Shafts in Delhi

For ventilating the spaces for water closets and bathrooms, if not opening on the front side, rear and interior open spaces, shall open on the ventilation shaft, the size of which shall not be less than the values given below.

The roof of the shaft shall be 1 m above the surrounding roof.

Height of Building in m Size of ventilation shaft in sq. m.  Minimum Size of shaft in m
Upto 9.0 m 1.5 1.0
Above 9.0 m and below 15.0 m 3.0 1.2

However it is not mandatory in case of buildings where mechanical ventilation is provided.

Important Note: All rooms like kitchen & bathrooms can also be mechanically ventilated through an exhaust opening in an interior or exterior open space.

Typical shaft in a 4 storeyed building of height just less than 15 m is 3 sqm and 1.2 m. Interior open to sky areas shall be allowed to cover with retractable roofing at the terrace level or at minimum double height to prevent climatic/weathering effects and the space below can be used as landscaped area, public space but can not be used for any commercial purpose.

We hope this article has helped you to understand Delhi Building Bye Laws. If you want to build your home in Delhi NCR, you may contact us to discuss. We have more than 50 projects in Delhi NCR.

Fly Ash Bricks vs Red Bricks

fly ash vs red bricks

When building a new home, a home owner has to make many choices in respect to the materials used on the site. One of them is to choose the type of brick to be used in constructing the home. In the market, two type of bricks are prominently available – Fly Ash Bricks and Red Bricks. In this blog article, we will try to explain the difference between the two, Fly Ash vs Red Bricks so that you can make an informed decision.

Below are the 7 main differences between Fly Ash and Red Bricks:

Ash 1. How They Are Made?

Fly ash bricks are made from the mixture of fly ash, cement, sand, lime, and gypsum. Industries using coal as a fuel emits unwanted ash and smoke from which fly ash is produced. This fly ash is then used as a raw material for manufacture of bricks.

Red bricks are made by mixture of clay, sand, lime, iron oxide and magnesia. Sand from locally available natural soil is used for production of bricks.

2. Strength

Strength of red bricks can vary significantly but it is generally around 70-75 kg/cm2. Fly ash bricks have more consistency in their strength and they also have a similar compressive strength of 70-75 kg/cm2.

3. Quality Consistency

In the case of red bricks, the consistency in quality is not very high. In case of fly ash bricks, the quality is consistent if bought from a good vendor.


4. Thermal Insulation

When compared to red bricks, fly ash bricks absorb less heat which causes less heating of structures. Their thermal insulation is 20%-25% higher than that of red bricks. Thermal conductivity of Red Bricks is 0.6 – 1.0 W/m K while Fly Ash Bricks have a thermal conductivity of 0.3 – 0.4 W/m K.

5. Appearance/Wall Finish

Red bricks have an uneven appearance with one side smooth and one side rough,  requiring a layer of finishing to give out a smooth surface. On the other hand fly ash bricks have a smooth, even surface on both sides. Hence, they require less plastering for building work.

6. Environment Friendly

Manufacturing of red bricks requires extraction and exploitation of the topsoil which may or may not be replaced. Fly ash bricks, on the other hand, utilize a waste material for manufacturing and prove more environmentally friendly. The utilization of fly ash bricks results in conservation of natural resources as well as protection of environment.

7. Termite Resistance

Red bricks are made of clay and are more susceptible to termites. In the case of fly ash bricks, they are made of inorganic material and are resistant to termite infestation.